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S No. Category Official Government Data Unofficial Estimates
1 Population Related
1.1 Total Population 2,510,788

Source: CBS, Census 2011
The unofficial population estimate of Kathmandu varies greatly. Below are some varying estimates

3.4 Million


 1.2 Population Density
(Persons/Sq. Km.) 
Kathmandu: 4408 Lalitpur: 1212 Bhaktapur: 2549 Ave. Kathmandu Valley: 2723

(These figures are for the entire districts and includes urban plus rural areas)

Source: CBS, Census 2011


The population density is much higher if considering the municipal areas and especially older inner city neighborhoods:


Average Population Density in Municipal Area: 19,500 per km²

Source: "Kathmandu Facts" KMC, Office




 1.3 Annual Population Growth Kathmandu: 4.76% Lalitpur: 3.23% Bhaktapur: 2.96%

Source: CBS, Census 2011

Various Sources have placed annual population growth in Kathmandu Valley as high as 6.5%

Source: Subedi, Jishnu (2009). Urban Disaster Risk Management in Kathmandu. In Urban Disaster Risk Management Rajib Shaw, Srinivas Hari, and Anshu Sharma (Eds.), Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

 1.4 Median/Average Age (Nepal) Average: 20.07 years
Male: 19.91 years
Female: 20.24 years

Source: CBS, Census 2001
Average: 21.6 years
Male: 20.7 years
Female: 22.5 years
(2011 est.)

Source: CIA, World Factbook (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2177.html)
 2  Vehicles
 2.1  Motorcycles  +500,000
(In 2011)

Source: The Kathmandu Post

(Throughout Nepal in 2012)

Source: DoTM
 2.2 Four Wheel Vehicles  +160,000
(In 2012)
More than half of all four wheelers registered in Nepal are in Bagmati Zone (Kathmandu)

Source: DoTM
3.1 Kathmandu Valley Area 665 Sq. Km.

Source: East-West Center, Univ. of Hawaii and KMC Office

Urban Area
Kathmandu - 50.67 sq. Km.
Lalitpur - 15.43 sq.km.

KMC Office http://www.kathmandu.gov.np/index.php
LSMC Office http://www.lalitpur.org.np/e_cityataglance_geography.php
600 sq. km (230 sq. miles)

Source: Wikitravel
 3.2 Average Elevation  1,350 meters (4,430 ft)

Source: KMC Office
 4  Pollution
 4.1  Air pollution According to its report, the level of particulate matter (PM) 10 in the air of Kathmandu is 120 microgram per square meter. As per the standard of WHO, the level of PM 10 should be 20 microgram per square meter.

Source: Xinhua News Agency article on WHO Report
- Fine particulate matter (PM2.5), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzene are air pollutants of concern in Kathmandu Valley.

- Concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 exceed WHO guideline values by a factor 2-10 indicating a serious risk for cardiovascular-respiratory diseases.

The fraction of fine particles PM2.5 and PM1.0 (0.8-0.9) is large in PM10 indicating a high threat
of PM-induced ailments.

About 1,600 premature deaths per year are expected to occur due to exposure of the Kathmandu Valley population to PM10.

Source: Stockholm Environment Institute
 4.2  Garbage About 500 tonnes/day

Source: The Kathmandu Post
 5 Public Infrastructure  Total Earthquake Safe
 5.1 Schools There is no authentic information on the exact number of schools in Kathmandu as there are many private and public schools throughout the valley and new schools opening up every year. In addition many of the private schools are opened in rented buildings and there are schools have multiple buildings in each school. NSET has only carried out an assessment of 643 public schools and not of private schools. The assessment was carried out ten years ago and updated information is not available. The findings of the NSET study stated that if a major 8.0 or higher earthquake was to hit that 66% of the buildings would be severely damaged and resulting in at least 29,000 deaths and 43,000 injuries.

Source: NSET http://www.nset.org.np/nset/php/publication.php
Out of the 700 building surveyed during the study only four to five percent of the buildings were built with some seismic resistant design features, such as reinforced concrete bands at the lintel level. The vast majority of buildings were built without considering seismic forces at all. The scary fact is that NSET conducted this study more than 10 years ago and there is no updated information available. Hundreds if not thousands of schools, (private) have opened since the study and the number of student have also increased tenfold with the growing population of Kathmandu. There is dire need to evaluated both public and private schools for seismic vulnerability as well as implement a emergency preparedness plan for school during an earthquake and in the immediate aftermath.

Source: NSET
 5.2  Hospitals Major Hospitals – 27

Source: American Nepal Medical Foundation
Results of studies on earthquake risk assessment of hospitals in Kathmandu show that about 80% of the hospitals fall in the unacceptable performance category for new construction and the remaining 20% of hospitals are at high risk of life-threatening collapse if major earthquake was to strike Kathmandu Valley.

Source: NSET and WHO joint study on earthquake risk assessment of Hospitals in Kathmandu

POINT TO BE NOTED: Latest risk assessment was carried out more than 10 years ago; many private hospitals have opened since. Despite the number of hospitals most are not earthquake safe.
 5.3  Bridges Major Bridges on highways connecting Kathmandu to Terai:
1.Prithvi Hwy – 25
2.Tribhuwan Hwy – 22
3.Mungling-Narayanghat Hwy – 17
Total - 64
To China (Tibet)
1.Arniko Hwy – 29

Major Bridges on District Roads
1.Bhaktapur - 10
2.Lalitpur - 9
3.Kathmandu – 28
Total – 47

Source: DoR
It is estimated that almost half of the bridges in the valley could be impassable, and that 10 percent of paved roads will have moderate damage, such as deep cracks or subsidence. In addition, many of the narrowest streets in the valley will be blocked by debris from damaged buildings. The city of Bhaktapur may not be accessible from Kathmandu or Lalitpur because of road and bridge damage. The bridges connecting Kathmandu and Lalitpur to each other are also at risk of liquefaction induced damage. Tribhuvan International Airport is surrounded by liquefaction prone areas. This means that the airport may be isolated from the rest of Kathmandu Valley, limiting emergency aid from outside of the valley.

In addition the highways leading to Kathmandu may be blocked by landslides as all of them pass through mountainous terrain and bridges may be severely damaged or collapsed isolating the Valley from receiving Aid via road or from facilitating mass exodus to more accessible terai region in the south.

Source: NSET
 6  Loss Estimation
 6.1 According to NSET 2001 Study:

Loss of life: 40,000
Injuries: 95,000
Homeless: 600,000 – 900,000

Source: NSET
According to Himal Article 2011:

Loss of Life: 100,000
Injuries: N/A
Homeless: 1.5 million

Source: Himal Magazine but estimates were provided by Amod Dixit

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